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Neighbourhood upgrading: A fragmented global history

This survey reviews the history of, and issues associated with, neighbourhood upgrading, defined as focused, coordinated action whose main purpose is to improve the physical and/or social conditions in particular, relatively disadvantaged urban subareas, for the benefit of existing residents. The survey brings together the fragmented, relevant literatures of historians, social scientists and policy analysts pertaining to both the global North and South. It considers the dimensions of disadvantage, together with the peculiar conditions of urban settings, problems of neighbourhood scale and boundaries, and the targeting of people or places. It reviews why governments act, and why they might prefer upgrading over laissez faire (neglect) or clearance. The longest section, organized historically and by world region, discusses the changing nature and importance of physical as opposed to social goals. It considers the agents involved in upgrading, including municipalities, property owners, other residents, and non-profits, before sketching major shifts over the past century and a half: the eventual shift from physical to social goals, the growing role of residents, and the rising importance of upgrading itself. These are attributed to the long-term expansion of government, the faltering rise of democratic practices, the growth of home ownership, the demise of colonialism, the rise of international agencies, and lately environmental concerns. A concluding discussion highlights issues that researchers and planners need to consider.

Progress in Planning SSCI | 2020 | 142

COVID-19 Outbreak in an Urban Hemodialysis Unit

Rationale & ObjectiveHemodialysis patients are at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission due in part to difficulty maintaining physical distancing. Our hemodialysis unit experienced a COVID-19 outbreak despite following symptom-based screening guidelines. We describe the course of the COVID-19 outbreak and the infection control measures taken for mitigation.Study DesignRetrospective cohort study.Setting & Participants237 maintenance hemodialysis patients and 93 hemodialysis staff at a single hemodialysis center in Toronto, Canada.ExposureUniversal screening of patients and staff for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).OutcomesThe primary outcome was detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal samples from patients and staff using reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Analytical ApproachDescriptive statistics were used for clinical characteristics and the primary outcome.Results11 of 237 (4.6%) hemodialysis patients and 11 of 93 (12%) staff members had a positive RT-PCR test result for SARS-CoV-2. Among individuals testing positive, 12 of 22 (55%) were asymptomatic at time of testing and 7 of 22 (32%) were asymptomatic for the duration of follow-up. One patient was hospitalized at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 4 additional patients with positive test results were subsequently hospitalized. 2 (18%) patients required admission to the intensive care unit. After 30 days’ follow-up, no patients had died or required mechanical ventilation. No hemodialysis staff required hospitalization. Universal droplet and contact precautions were implemented during the outbreak. Hemodialysis staff with SARS-CoV-2 infection were placed on home quarantine regardless of symptom status. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, including asymptomatic individuals, were treated with droplet and contact precautions until confirmation of negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results. Analysis of the outbreak identified 2 index cases with subsequent nosocomial transmission within the dialysis unit and in shared shuttle buses to the hemodialysis unit.LimitationsSingle-center study.ConclusionsUniversal SARS-CoV-2 testing and universal droplet and contact precautions in the setting of an outbreak appeared to be effective in preventing further transmission.

American journal of kidney diseases SCI,SCIE | 2020 | 76 (5)

Structural characterization of the Extended Frontal Aslant Tract trajectory: A ML-validated laterality study in 3T and 7T

The Extended Frontal Aslant Tract (exFAT) is a recently described tractography-based extension of the Frontal Aslant Tract connecting Broca’s territory to both supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas, and more anterior prefrontal regions. In this study, we aim to characterize the microstructural properties of the exFAT trajectories as a means to perform a laterality analysis to detect interhemispheric structural differences along the tracts using the Human Connectome Project (HCP) dataset. To that end, the bilateral exFAT was reconstructed for 3T and 7T HCP acquisitions in 120 randomly selected subjects. As a complementary exploration of the exFAT anatomy, we performed a white matter dissection of the exFAT trajectory of two ex-vivo left hemispheres that provide a qualitative assessment of the tract profiles. We assessed the lateralization structural differences in the exFAT by performing: (i) a laterality comparison between the mean microstructural diffusion-derived parameters for the exFAT trajectories, (ii) a laterality comparison between the tract profiles obtained by applying the Automated Fiber Quantification (AFQ) algorithm, and (iii) a cross-validated Machine Learning (ML) classifier analysis using single and combined tract profiles parameters for single-subject classification. The mean microstructural diffusion-derived parameter comparison showed statistically significant differences in mean FA values between left and right exFATs in the 3T sample. The diffusion parameters studied with the AFQ technique suggest that the inferiormost half of the exFAT trajectory has a hemispheric-dependent fingerprint of microstructural properties, with an increased measure of tissue hindrance in the orthogonal plane and a decreased measure of orientational dispersion along the main tract direction in the left exFAT compared to the right exFAT. The classification accuracy of the ML models showed a high agreement with the magnitude of those differences.

NeuroImage (Orlando, Fla. Print) SCI,SCIE | 2020 | 222

What makes people intend to take protective measures against influenza? Perceived risk, efficacy, or trust in authorities

BackgroundInfluenza outbreaks occur annually across the world, causing a global health challenge. This study aims to explore the association between risk perception (perceived severity and perceived probability), perceived efficacy (individual's efficacy and government's efficacy), trust in authorities, and intention to implement influenza protective behaviors.MethodsThe data (N = 1,372) used in this paper comes from the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey dataset. Six intentions of protective behaviors (getting vaccinated, wearing a mask, washing hands, avoiding going to public settings, sanitizing home, and eating nutritional supplements) were investigated. Tobit and ordered logistic regressions were used to conduct data analysis.ResultsRespondents were most inclined to washing hands, followed by wearing a mask, avoiding going to public settings, getting vaccine, sanitizing their homes, and eating nutritional supplements. Perceived severity and individual's efficacy were positively correlated with all 6 behavioral intentions. Trust in authorities has positive effect on all the protective behaviors except sanitizing home. Moreover, perceived probability has positive relationships with overall intention, intention to wear mask, and intention to wash hands. Government's efficacy was only positively correlated with eating nutritional supplements.ConclusionsPerceived severity and perceived response efficacy towards flu, as well as trust in authorities were relatively important factors in motivating people's intention to adopt influenza protective behaviors.

American journal of infection control SCIE | 2020 | 48 (11)

Experiences and Needs of Caregivers of Persons With Dementia in India During the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Qualitative Study

ObjectiveTo describe the experiences and needs of caregivers of persons with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in a city in India.DesignQualitative study using a telephonic semistructured interview.SettingA specialist geriatric outpatient mental health service based in a nongovernmental organization in Chennai, India.ParticipantsA purposive sampling of family members of persons with dementia registered in the database and seen within the previous 6 months.ResultsThirty-one caregivers participated. Thematic analysis of the data showed two sets of issues that the caregivers of persons with dementia faced in their experiences during the pandemic. The first set was unique to the caregivers that directly related to their caregiving role, while the second set did not relate directly to their caregiving role. These two sets also appeared to have a two-way interaction influencing each other. These issues generated needs, some of which required immediate support while others required longer-term support. The caregivers suggested several methods, such as use of video-consultations, telephone-based support and clinic-based in-person visits to meet their needs. They also wanted more services postpandemic.ConclusionCaregivers of persons with dementia had multiple needs during the pandemic. Supporting them during these times require a pragmatic multilayered approach. Systemic changes, policies and frameworks, increased awareness, use of technology, and better access to health are necessary.

The American journal of geriatric psychiatry (Print) SCI,SSCI,SCIE | 2020 | 28 (11)